Ball valve body types have two classifications according to the size of the valve in relation to the pipe size.
Full Port Type
This type has the same internal diameter type as the internal diameter of the attached pipe. The advantage of this design is reduced friction. Used in refining and petrochemical industries, this design does not restrict fluid flow, albeit more expensive to install.
Reduced Port Type
Also known as standard port valves or reduced bore. Additionally, the valve is one size smaller than the piper to which it is attached to. This type is often used in gas and oil applications.
This is a more specialized ball valve as it acts as a control valve too. The ball or seat can have a V shape since it has either a V-shaped ball or seat. This design allows for a more uniform media flow so there is a lesser pressure drop compared with the other two port types.